Hit me baby one more time. And so you're back from outer space. Sense of sanity vanished when u entered the matrix.
Nice that I haven't lost my writing abilities yet ). So now to the definition by Wiki:
Sufferers of panic attacks often report a fear or sense of dying, "going crazy," or experiencing a heart attack or "flashing vision," feeling faint or nauseated, a numb sensation throughout the body, heavy breathing (and almost always, hyperventilation), or losing control of themselves. Some people also suffer from tunnel vision, mostly due to blood flow leaving the head to more critical parts of the body in defense. These feelings may provoke a strong urge to escape or flee the place where the attack began (a consequence of the sympathetic "fight-or-flight response") in which the hormone which causes this response is released in significant amounts. This response floods the body with hormones, particularly epinephrine (adrenaline), that aid it in defending against harm.
What happens ?
These feelings may provoke a strong urge to escape or flee the place where the attack began (a consequence of the sympathetic "fight-or-flight response") in which the hormone which causes this response is released in significant amounts. This response floods the body with hormones, particularly epinephrine (adrenaline), that aid it in defending against harm.
"...studies with a variety of panicogenic agents that operate by diverse pharmacologic mechanisms have suggested a network model of panic involving dysregulation of multiple neuronal systems. Genetic analyses are consistent with a heritable predisposition, or "panic diathesis," that confers an increased susceptibility to pharmacologic challenge, even in subjects with no overt history of panic disorder. Functional imaging (fMRI) studies confirm preclinical investigations of the anatomical basis of anxiety and provide further evidence for a network of related brain regions mediating the genesis of anxious and fearful behaviors, including panic attacks." Krystal JH, Deutsch DN, Charney DS. The biological basis of panic disorder.
.J Clin Psychiatry. 1996;57 Suppl 10:23-31; discussion 32-3.
Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) + Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs)
By the way:
Interesting recent piece of reseach conducted in collaboration between Ukraine and Northern Ireland - anxiety + SSRIs + 5-HT1A receptor polymorphism
Early response to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors in panic disorder is associated with a functional 5-HT1A receptor gene polymorphism
Olga O. Yevtushenkoa, b, , , Mykhaylo M. Orosc and Gavin P. Reynoldsb
Received 6 July 2009;
revised 9 September 2009;
accepted 9 September 2009.
Available online 1 October 2009.
BackgroundPanic disorder is a common and disabling condition which can be treated with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). Although many subjects respond well to such treatment, there is substantial inter-individual variation implicating genetic factors.
Methods102 patients with a diagnosis of panic disorder receiving sertraline or paroxetine took part in study. Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale score, CGI and panic attack frequency (per month) were assessed before and after 6 weeks of SSRI treatment with 1 week of titration period. All patients were genotyped for the − 1019C/G 5-HT1A receptor and ins/del 5-HT transporter polymorphisms.
ResultsThe 5-HT1A receptor − 1019C/G polymorphism was strongly associated with response to treatment, in which 20 subjects with the GG genotype showed minimal changes in panic attack frequency with a relative risk of no response of 4.73. This association was also found with each drug independently. However, no association of the ins/del 5-HT transporter polymorphism with treatment response was observed.
LimitationsLarger numbers of subjects and longer period of SSRI treatment would confirm and strengthen these preliminary findings.
ConclusionThese results indicate the importance of a 5-HT1A receptor gene polymorphism in the response to SSRI treatment of panic disorder.
Keywords: 5-HT1A receptor; 5-HT transporter; Pharmacogenetics; Panic disorder; Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors